Realisation of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB) for residential use depends on, among many other things, minimizing air leakages. However, very airtight houses will have an increased risk for problems regarding indoor humidity, thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Focusing on ventilation systems becomes a requirement in this situation. For cold climates, mechanical ventilation systems are the state of the art solution and in order to achieve a further reduction in energy use, the focus must be on efficient energy recovery. This paper focuses on a quasi-counter flow membrane-based heat and moisture recovery system for cold climates such as the Norwegian climate. The membrane separates the two air streams and allows both heat and moisture transfer. Its effectiveness is crucially depending on the heat and mass transfer resistance of the membrane that separates the two air streams and therefore the characteristics of membranes have to be deeply analysed. To analyse the membrane, this study starts with a detailed theoretical study of the forces governing transfer through membranes. A literature review of available measurements for membrane resistance is performed. Following this, heat and mass transfer in selected types of membranes will be measured in order to validate the results of the theoretical analyse. The conclusion to be taken from this study is the selection of the characteristics of the most suitable membrane for a residential heat and moisture exchanger in cold climates.