This paper aimed to contribute to the discussion about the role of net zero-energy buildings (ZEBs) or nearly ZEBs in future energy systems, from the perspective of the resulting import/export interaction with the surrounding energy grid (commonly named grid interaction (GI)). This investigation analyses three buildings with measured data at sub-hourly time resolution. The goal of this paper was to quantify the effect of using high-resolution data (one or a few minutes) versus hourly resolution in the GI analysis of buildings with an on-site generation system. A limited set of quantitative GI indicators have been selected: the generation multiple, the dimensioning rate and the connection capacity credit. Additionally, this paper presents graphical representations describing in an intuitive way the yearly or daily variation of the indicators. Some general trends have been identified and the usefulness of the selected indicators is demonstrated. Findings show conclusively that sub-hourly analysis will give more accurate information. Differences between peak values measured with hourly and sub-hourly time resolution can be significant. If detailed GI analysis at the individual building level is required, one should consider going for detailed sub-hourly analysis.
The main objective of this paper is to contribute to the discussion on the role of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs) on future energy systems by the interplay between on-site generation and the building loads, often called load matching, and the resulting import/export interaction with the surrounding electricity grid, commonly named grid interaction. This investigation analyzes five case studies with high resolution data, three of which are based on real monitored buildings. The research aims at selecting and suggesting a limited set of quantitative indicators that: (a) can provide practical information for building as well as grid designers and operators, and (b) are understandable for a wider audience and do not require complex simulation tools or additional resources. This paper also presents novel graphical representations describing the yearly or daily variation of the indexes in an understandable manner.
It has been found that the hourly values of the cover factors (namely, the load cover factor and the supply cover factor) provide quite a good picture of the correlation between on-site demand and supply of energy. These factors illustrate both the daily and seasonal effect, the production pattern of different renewable energy technologies, and applied operation/control strategies. The loss-of load probability factor shows how often the on-site supply does not cover the on-site demand but it provides limited information. Several grid interaction indicators are presented in a normalized form based on the connection capacity between the building and the grid. The generation multiple is an index that compares peak values of exported/imported energy; it may also be used with generation/load values. The dimensioning rate and the connection capacity credit relate the building with the electrical grid. These indexes can be used to analyze individual buildings and extend their use in the case of cluster of buildings. Although some general trends have been identified in the results and the usefulness of these indicators is demonstrated, it should be noted that further studies are needed in order to define reference values for particular building topologies, clusters of buildings and climates, which could be used as a rule-of-thumb for grid/building designers.